This is distributed as 36–39 mm of horizontal and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the fault's plane per year.[2]. It is the responsibility of the user of any material to obtain clearance from the copyright holder. B: Arrows and enlargements highlight PST veins in quartzofeldspathic mylonite (photomicrograph in plane polarized light). The diagram was created for the purpose of the current study. We report on a 45 km long section of the fault system within an area between the mouth of the Wairoa Alpine Fault The Alpine fault marks the plate boundary between the The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. [27] It was led by New Zealand geologists Rupert Sutherland, John Townsend and Virginia Toy and involves an international team from New Zealand, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Offshore investigations have allowed the Alpine Fault to be accurately mapped immediately west of Fiordland. 5.0 earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the central part of the Alpine fault. Normal faults are common; they bound many of the mountain ranges of the world and many of the rift valleys found along spreading margins… Source: NIWA – National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Eileen McSaveney, 'Active faults - Building on or near active faults', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/diagram/4361/alpine-fault-offshore-from-fiordland (accessed 16 December 2020), Story by Eileen McSaveney, published 12 Jun 2006, reviewed & revised 1 Aug 2017. [9] However, it is now inferred by multiples lines of evidence that the Alpine Fault ruptures creating major earthquakes about every few hundred years. Through the South Island the Alpine Fault acts as a transfer of plate convergence to east facing subduction of the Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate, occurring south of New Zealand in the Puysegur trench. Transform fault (the red lines) A transform fault or transform boundary is a fault along a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal. The Alpine Fault in the central region forms dipping sections with oblique thrust characteristics connected by sections with mainly dextral strike-slip, resulting in a "zigzag" outcrop pattern. This item has been provided for private study purposes (such as school projects, family and local history research) and any published reproduction (print or electronic) may infringe copyright law. The uplift is due to an element of convergence between the plates, meaning that the fault has a significant high-angle reverse oblique component[clarification needed] to its displacement. The last rupture of the Hope Fault was in 1888 when an earthquake with an estimated mome7.3 nt magnitude of 7- produced fault slip of about 2.5 m in the horizontal direction (Figure 4). This gave a mean recurrence rate of 291 years, plus or minus 23 years, down from the previously estimated rate of 329 years, plus or minus 26 years. In earthquake terms, the 850 kilometres (530 mi) long fault is remarkably consistent, rupturing on average every 330 years, at intervals ranging from 140 years to 510 years. Snow on the mountains of the Pacific plate contrasts with the lower land of the Australian plate. ", "DEEP FAULT DRILLING PROJECT-2 FAQs / drill probe in Alpine Fault / Media Releases / News and Events / Home – GNS Science", "Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault", "Potential earthquake triggering in a complex fault network: the northern South Island, New Zealand", Alpine Fault research in the Department of Geology. A focused look at the Alpine fault, New Zealand: Seismicity, focal mechanisms, and stress observations © Crown Copyright. [11] Over the last thousand years, there have been four major ruptures along the Alpine Fault causing earthquakes of about magnitude 8. Ensure your Alpine product is covered by our limited warranty* Register. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. [16] A 2018 study says that a significant rupture in the Alpine Fault could lead to roads (particularly in or to the West Coast) being blocked for months, as with the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, with problems in supplying towns and evacuating tourists. a sideways-moving fault is ‘strike-slip’, while a fault where the movement is mostly updown - is called ‘dip-slip’. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. Richard H. Sibson from the same university also used the Alpine Fault to refine his nomenclature of fault rocks which gained international adherence. In the south the fault is mostly on land and is a strike-slip type, creating no tsunami hazard, Ward said. Lateral displacements of this magnitude could not be explained by pre-plate tectonics geology and his ideas were not initially widely accepted until 1956. [2], The fault zone is exposed at numerous locations along the West Coast and typically comprises a 10-50 m wide fault gouge zone with pervasive hydrothermal alteration. [22] The fault was officially named the Alpine Fault in 1942 as an extension of a previously mapped structure. Occurs in this case the mapped fault trace ( rupture surface ; bold red line ) located... 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