Because of the poem’s setting, personages, topographical detail, and realistic tone and treatment and because the poet wrote soon after the Cid’s death, this poem has been accepted as historically authentic, a conclusion extended to the Castilian epic generally. His best-known plays, appropriately classified as high drama, include El alcalde de Zalamea (c. 1640; The Mayor of Zalamea), which rejects social honour’s tyranny, preferring the inner nature of true human worth and dignity. The last strophe of the muwashshaḥ was the markaz, or theme stanza, popularly called the kharjah and transcribed in Spanish as jarcha. The tragic trilogy Bodas de sangre (1933; Blood Wedding), Yerma (1934; Eng. Continuing his literary experimentation, Cela attained greater technical heights in La colmena (1951; The Hive), portraying divided Madrid society during the harsh winter of 1941–42. Darío greatly enriched the musical resources of Spanish verse with the daring use of new rhythms and metres, creating an introspective, cosmopolitan, and aesthetically beautiful poetry. The drama achieved its true splendour in the genius of Lope de Vega (in full Lope Félix de Vega Carpio). José Jiménez Lozano investigates Inquisitorial repression, recondite religious issues, and esoteric historical themes drawn from a variety of cultures in such novels as Historia de un otoño (1971; “History of Autumn”) and El sambenito (1972; “The Saffron Tunic”). The cuadro de costumbres and artículo de costumbres—short literary sketches on customs, manners, or character—were two types of costumbrista writing, typically published in the popular press or included as an element of longer literary works such as novels. The result mingled eroticism with devotion and invited readers to interpret often-equivocal teachings. Benito Pérez Galdós, detail of an oil painting by Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida. But the death of King Charles III in 1788 and the horror spread by the French Revolution brought an abrupt halt to Spain’s incursion into the Age of Reason. Drawing on the Old Testament, the Talmud, and the Hebrew poet and philosopher Ibn Gabirol, Santob’s Proverbios introduced Hebrew poetry’s grave sententiousness and aphoristic concision. Nostalgia de mañana (1943; “Nostalgia for Tomorrow”) reflects her generation’s predilection for traditional metrics; her other works represent pure poetry and avoid the confessional and autobiographical mode. 'Ilustrados' such as José Rizal and Pedro Paterno contributed to important Spanish literary work in the Philippines and subsequently, Philippine Classical Literature. In El hombre deshabitado (1931; “The Uninhabited Man”), a modern allegorical play in the manner of Calderón’s autos sacramentales, he created poetic, fatalistic myths out of realistic themes and folk motifs. The fabulist, literary critic, and poet Félix María Samaniego published an enduringly popular collection, Fábulas en verso (1781; “Fables in Verse”), which—with Iriarte’s fables—is among Neoclassicism’s most enjoyable, best-loved poetic productions. The Book of Count Lucanor and Patronio)—which consists of 51 moral tales variously didactic, amusing, and practical—drew partly on Arabic, Oriental, and popular Spanish sources. Benito Pérez Galdós, Spain’s most significant novelist after Cervantes, perfected the Spanish realistic novel and created a new type of historical novel, imaginatively reproducing many turbulent chapters of Spain’s 19th-century history. In 1770 he returned to Madrid, where his close friendships with Moratín and leading actresses prompted his heroic tragedy Don Sancho García (1771) as well as Solaya; o, los circasianos (“Solaya; or, The Circassians”) and La Numantina (“The Girl from Numancia”). While poetry and theatre claimed the major honours, Spanish Romanticism also produced many novels—but none that rivaled those of Scottish contemporary Sir Walter Scott. Scan lists of history essay prompts. An early humanist, Ayala translated and imitated Livy, Boccaccio, Boethius, St. Gregory, and St. Isidore. Manuel Tamayo y Baus achieved fame with Un drama nuevo (1867; A New Drama), whose characters, members of William Shakespeare’s acting company, include Shakespeare himself. Models for epic poetry were the works of Italian poets Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso, but the themes and heroes of Spanish epics celebrated overseas conquest or defense of the empire and the faith. Rich in personal experience and spiritual intimacy, her poetry ranks among the best women’s lyrics in 20th-century Spain; it records a personal history of war and loss, exile and nostalgia, pain, solitude, and existential doubt. Alfonso X, 13th-century manuscript illumination. A crusader, adventurer, and short-story writer, he achieved enormous international success with novels widely translated and adapted for the screen and became Spain’s best-known novelist in the first third of the 20th century, though he was seldom well received at home. A neonaturalist, he saw the world as a cruel place, and many of his works—including the trilogies La raza (1908–11; “The Race”) and La lucha por la vida (1903–04; “The Struggle for Life”) and the two-part Agonías de nuestro tiempo (1926; “Agonies of Our Time”)—portray squalid, subhuman conditions, prostitutes and criminals, and ignorance and disease. Maybe even skim a history essay example or 2 (or 10, or 25). 3. Ramón de la Cruz, representing the Spanish “nationalist” dramatists against the afrancesados (imitators of French models), resurrected the earlier pasos and longer entremeses of Lope de Rueda, Cervantes, and Luis Quiñones de Benavente. Production of Romantic dramas was also postponed until after Ferdinand VII’s death. Culteranismo, the ornate, roundabout, high-flown style of which Luis de Góngora y Argote was archpriest, attempted to ennoble the language by re-Latinizing it. Surnames for Filipinos. Writing biography and autobiography became fashionable during this period. The sociopolitical trauma of civil conflict with its cultural and economic uncertainty revived outmoded forms of realism. TRUE 1. Most of these poets experimented with free verse or exotic forms drawn from the Japanese, Arabic, and Afro-Caribbean literary traditions. The Cancionero de Baena (“Songbook of Baena”), compiled for the king by the poet Juan Alfonso de Baena, anthologized 583 poems (mostly courtly lyrics) by 55 poets from the highest nobles to the humblest versifiers. Among the only native systems of writing that have survived are the syllabaries of the Mindoro Mangyans and the Tagbanua of Palawan. These matters somehow helped and lead us of what we are now. We should protect and preserve them all because only us Filipinos can do it. Spain’s agriculture was crippled, its cottage industries dwindled and nearly disappeared, and industrialization lagged behind that of other western European countries. In Romancero gitano (1928; The Gypsy Ballads), he blended popular styles with sophisticated mythic and symbolic elements evoking mysterious, ambivalent visions of nature. Ruiz’s Trotaconventos became Spanish literature’s first great fictional character. 1. The other stylistic movement, conceptismo, played on ideas as culteranismo did on language. Yet, notwithstanding the predominance of social poetry during the 1950s and ’60s, many important poets—such as Luis Felipe Vivanco and Luis Rosales—did not share its concerns, and social poetry as a movement suffered desertions even before the much-publicized launching of the novísimos in 1970. Prolific, facile, and declamatory, Zorrilla produced huge numbers of plays, lyric and narrative verse collections, and enormously popular rewrites of Siglo de Oro plays and legends; he was treated as a national hero. The Great Malayan was a biography which won the Commonwealth Literary Contest for biography about Rizal. His Episodios nacionales (1873–79 and 1898–1912; “National Episodes”) comprise 46 volumes and cover the 70 years from the Napoleonic Wars to Spain’s short-lived First Republic. Conde assiduously cultivated poetry’s universal themes: love, suffering, nature, dreams, memory, solitude, death, estrangement, religious questing, grief. The work of Encina’s Portuguese disciple Gil Vicente, a court poet at Lisbon who wrote in both Castilian and Portuguese, showed a significantly improved naturalness of dialogue, acuteness of observation, and sense of situation. This article provides a brief historical account of each of these three literatures and examines the emergence of major genres. Ana María Matute, among the most honoured novelists of her generation, typically employed lyric and expressionistic style with fictions set in mountainous areas of Old Castile, as in Los hijos muertos (1958; The Lost Children), which sought to reconcile war-born hatreds by showing irreparable losses on both sides. The cloak-and-sword play, which dominated drama after Lope, was pure entertainment, exploiting disguise, falling in and out of love, and false alarms about honour. Author: Tomás Rivera. The Period of Activism Historical Background The Seeds of Activism THE LITERARY REVOLUTION WRITINGS DURING THE PERIOD OF ACTIVISM The Period of the Bloody Placards According to Pociano Pineda, youth activism in 1970 – 1972 was due to domestic and worldwide causes. Costumbrismo began before Romanticism, contributing to both Romanticism and the later realism movement through realistic prose. Author of. Carmen Conde Abellán, a socialist and Republican supporter, suffered postwar “internal exile” in Spain while her husband was a political prisoner. Friar Bartolomé de Las Casas, sometimes called the “Apostle of the Indies,” wrote Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, or The Tears of the Indians) in 1542, criticizing Spanish colonial policy and abuse of the native population. Vital experience into literature with the Generation of 1898 but ideologically and aesthetically distinct was Benavente..., Alberti initially incorporated popular forms and folk elements and repetitive and that insulted the vanquished, showing as... Dramatic poetry was modern yet traditional, personal yet universal his long stay in Italy, with its cultural economic... 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